Denise St. Clair, Harriotte Heinzen, Frank F. Jenkins, and Elaine Carlson
This paper evaluates risks for poor educational outcomes among preschoolers with disabilities using a nationally representative sample of 3,000 children who were included in the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS). The authors addressed three questions: 1) Can individual, familial, and temperament attributes be used to define one or more latent risk factors; 2) How do these risk factors relate to specific academic outcomes; and, 3) How do these relationships vary by race/ethnicity and metropolitan status? To answer these questions, they created factor scales for child, familial, and temperment risk factors, and used them as predictors of academic outcomes. Results indicate that the factor scales were successful predictors of risk.