Occupational Satisfaction, Strain, and Intention to Quit among Direct Care Providers Assisting Individuals with Developmental Disabilities
Jeffrey M. McKillop and Patricia Minnes
This study assessed employment variables that may predict intention to quit among direct care providers assisting individuals with developmental disabilities. A sample of 96 direct care providers completed a brief questionnaire that measured (1) specific occupational characteristics of providers, (2) frequency of adaptive and maladaptive behaviours displayed by clients, (3) the quality of providers' work group, and (4) providers' level of occupational strain and job satisfaction. Direct care providers who expressed lower job satisfaction demonstrated higher intention to leave their employment. Lower job satisfaction was influenced by higher ratings of occupational strain, work group dysfunction, and years of education. The results suggest that reducing employment strain among direct care providers and increasing work group cohesion may be beneficial to both providers and agencies that assist individuals with developmental disabilities
Extending the Hierarchy of the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities: The Role of Conditional Position Discrimination
Holly A. Seniuk, Ashley E. Grennwald, W. Larry Williams, and Marianne L. Jackson
The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) is designed to measure the ability of individuals with developmental disabilities to learn three simple and three conditional discrimination tasks. The current study was designed to determine whether a conditional position discrimination would fit into the current ABLA heirarchy, and where it may fit. It was found that a conditional position discrimination fell above level 6, with half of the participants at level 6 being able to perform the task. The study also demonstrated that a direct response-reinforcer procedure was not effective in improving performance on the task.
CBCL Profiles of Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Review and Pilot Study
Jessica Schroeder, Jonathan Weiss, and James Bebko
There is increasing recognition of psychiatric co-morbidities in individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) that extend beyond the core features of the disorder. Previous research with individuals with AS and autism are summarized. This study aims to examine the behavioural profile of a non-referred AS sample. The Childhood Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) was completed by parents of fifteen children and adolescents with AS (6 - 18 years). Elevated scores across all CBCL scales were found relative to the normative group. Social, thought and attention problems and anxiety and depressive symptoms were particularly elevated. Research and clinical implications are discussed.
L'utilisation des technologies en intervention precoce : pistes de reflexion
Dany Lussier-Desrochers, Carmen Dionne, and Arline Laforest
Information and communication technology in pre-school settings are considered as important contributors in early intervention for children with intellectual disabilities and children with autism spectrum disorder. The potential of such technology to improve various developmental components of young children and to adapt the interventions to the specific needs of each child have been recognized. However, these technologies raise various questions regarding the professional intervention and even the type of help that is provided to families.
Commentary: Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Implications for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders - Part II
Robert King and Cindy L. Desaulnier
The term complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD), (Herman, 1992) describes the clinical presentation of individuals exposed to repeated trauma. Hypotheses regarding the manner in which individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with CPTSD may process trauma and the manner and how they might present clinically with this disorder, have been explored (King, 2010). This paper discusses practice-based evidence regarding the treatment of CPTSD in neurotypical individuals and summarizes evidence-based suggestions for the modification of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The need to continue to gather evidence-based modifications to CBT to optimize the treatment of CPTSD in individuals with ASDs is highlighted.
Does the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities Predict Four-Choice Discrimination Learning for Persons with Developmental Disabilities?
Lee F. MacPherson, Christine G. P. Sousa, Kendra M. Thomson, Toby L. Martin, Sandra Salem, Garry L. Martin, and C. T. Yu
The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) measures the ease or difficulty with which persons with developmental disabilities are able to learn a simple imitation and 5 two-choice discrimination tasks (Kerr, Meyerson & Flora, 1977). The pass/fail performance of clients on the ABLA predicts their ability to learn a variety of two-choice training tasks (Martin, Thorsteinsson, Yu, Maritn, & Vause, 2008). The current study assessed whether pass/fail performance of clients on the ABLA predicted their learning of four-choice tasks, and whether those predictions were as accurate as direct-care staff who had worked with the participants for at least three months. Participants passed significantly more four-choice tasks at their ABLA level than four-choice tasks immediately above their highest passed ABLA level, supporting the predictive validity of the ABLA. Staff predictions were slightly more accurate than ABLA predictions, although the difference was not statistically significant. Implications of these finding are discussed.