Effects of Enhanced Structure in an Aquatics Environment for Three Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study
Kyle Pushkarenko, Gregory Reid, and Veronica Smith
The purpose of the pilot study was to examine the effects of pictographic activity schedule implementation within a structured aquatic environment for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three boys (11 to 17 years) enrolled at a school for children with developmental disabilities served as participants. An interrupted time series design (A/B/A) was used to assess the effects of the picto-graphic activity schedules on inappropriate response time in the aquatic setting. The results indicated that activity schedules, when used during structured teaching, improved behaviour in children with ASD by means of reducing inappropriateness. Additionally, a generalized effect of the activity schedules was found during free play with decreased rates of inappropriate behaviour. The implications of these findings show the importance of visual activity schedules within all domains of education, including those involving physical activity as a means of reducing maladaptive behaviour.
La relation entre le trouble primaire du langage et la théorie de l’esprit : perspective
Annie Stipanicic, Marie-Pier Lefebvre, Pierre Nolin, Marie Paquette, et Jessica Lesage
La théorie de l’esprit (ToM), cette capacité à concevoir qu’autrui peut avoir des états mentaux différents des siens, est en étroite relation avec le langage. Pourtant, la ToM chez les enfants avec un trouble primaire du langage (TPL) a été peu exploré. Les premières études sur le sujet semblaient dire que les enfants présentant ce trouble réussis-saient bien les tâches de ToM. Or, des études plus récentes soulèvent la possibilité que cette clientèle accuse plutôt un retard dans le développement de leur ToM. L’étude de la ToM chez les enfants avec un TPL pose certains défis méthodologiques qui doivent être considérés afin de clarifier la nature de ce lien et conséquemment son impact sur le fonctionnement de l’enfant au quotidien. Cet article propose une réflexion critique sur ces défis à partir d’une synthèse des principaux travaux portant sur la ToM auprès de la clientèle présentant un TPL.
Perspective on the Relationship Between Primary Language Disorder and Theory of Mind
Theory of mind (ToM), which is the ability to conceive that others’ mental states may differ from one’s own, is closely related in close relation to language. Yet, ToM in children with primary language disorder (PLD) has not been extensively studied. Initial research on the subject seemed to conclude that these children performed well at ToM tasks. However, recent studies have shown that children with PLD may have delays in developing ToM. Studying ToM in children with PLD raises some methodological questions that must be considered in order to better understand the relation between ToM and language and how this relation impacts child daily functioning. The goal of our study is to reflect critically on these methodological questions by looking at our review of the main research on ToM in children with PLD.
L’importance d’une évaluation intellectuelle des enfants présentant un trouble du spectre de l’autisme afin de bonifier leurs interventions
Nathalie Poirier, Nadia Abouzeid, et Christine Florigan Ménard
Le présent article expose l’hétérogénéité des profils intellectuels que présentent les en-fants ayant un trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) et mentionne la pertinence de réaliser une évaluation cognitive ou développementale, et ce, particulièrement lorsque l’enfant effectue le passage vers la maternelle. Cette évaluation peut aider à cibler le type de classement scolaire, mais surtout à préciser les outils d’intervention complémentaires à l’enseignement. Quarante-trois protocoles d’évaluation d’enfants ayant un TSA ont été étudiés. Des forces et des faiblesses ont été notées et des outils d’intervention sont suggérés.
Relevance of Intellectual Assessments to Improve Intervention Planning for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
This article discusses the diversity of intellectual profiles associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the relevance of performing a cognitive or developmental assessment. This issue appears even more important when a child with ASD is entering kindergarten. This evaluation can be beneficial as it can facilitate students’ placement as well as identify teaching strategies tailored to their specific needs. Forty three assessment forms of children with ASD were examined. Strengths and weaknesses were noted and interventions tools are recommended.
A Knowledge Brokering Process for Challenging Behaviours in Special Education
Brenda M. Stoesz, Lindsay McCombe, Toby Martin, and C. T. Yu
Previous research describes evidence-based ways to reduce challenging behaviours displayed by individuals with intellectual/developmental disabilities (IDD). These findings may not be put into practice because they are rarely delivered in user-friendly ways. Effective knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) may bridge this know-do gap; however, the literature tells us little about KTE processes as applied in special education. Here, we describe the KTE implementation process of our knowledge brokering team for a school that serves students with IDD. Researchers and teachers were highly satisfied with the process and deliverables. Challenges in the process and implications for future KTE research are described.
Effects of a Self-Instructional Manual, Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction, and Demonstration Videos on Declarative and Procedural Knowledge Acquisition of the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities
Lei Hu and Joseph J. Pear
We evaluated the effects of three training components to teaching 12 university students the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA; an instrument that measures an individual’s ability to learn some basic behavioural functions). The three components involved the students (a) studying the ABLA using a self-instructional manual (SIM), (b) working on the manual combined with passing unit tests delivered via a computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) program, and (c) watching demonstration videos. A multiple baseline design across the two training conditions was used to evaluate the effects of the components. Eleven students after receiving CAPSI training, as opposed to only three students after receiving SIM alone training, scored 85% accuracy or higher on declarative knowledge performance. Watching demonstration videos about the ABLA after the SIM and CAPSI training increased procedural knowledge performance for 10 students. The present study is one of the first to compare training effects of three components on teaching a behavioural assessment. The practical implications of training procedures were discussed.
The Effects of Student Peer Review on the Efficacy of Computer-Aided System of Instruction to Teach Discrete Trials Teaching
Marileide A. de Oliveira, Heather Jaksic, May Lee, Jade K. Wightman, Chloe Wang, Karli Pedreira, Toby L. Martin, Dickie C.T. Yu, Tricia Vause, Maurice Feldman, and Joseph J. Pear
Student peer-reviewing (SPR) contributes to their own learning and that of the students they are grading. More research is needed on the effects of SPR on the reviewer’s knowledge and skills of behavioural instructional skills such as Discrete Trials Teaching (DTT). The present study evaluated the effects of adding SPR to an online teaching method, Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction (CAPSI). Following CAPSI in DTT, participants (N = 32) were randomly assigned to receive SPR or not. Both groups showed statistically significant increases in DTT knowledge and applied performances from baseline, with no between group differences. This study supports the use of computer-assisted self-instruction in teaching applied behaviour analysis knowledge and skills.
Understanding Implementation of Frailty Measures Among Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Katherine McKenzie, Lynn Martin, and Hélène Ouellette-Kuntz
As the general population ages, there has been greater interest in frailty measures to inform clinical practice and policy decisions. The population of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities is also aging, and Canadian policymakers have expressed the need to monitor and treat their aging-related conditions as early as possible. Outside of Canada, two research teams in the field of intellectual and developmental disabilities have developed frailty measures, although neither frailty measure has yet been used to support policymaking. The purpose of this study is to understand the factors contributing to implementation of a frailty measure in populations of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Key informants from each research team were interviewed about knowledge translation experiences. Interview questions were guided by the World Health Organization’s Ageing and Health Knowledge Translation Framework, which is used to integrate evidence-based strategies and aging-related health policy, processes, and programmes. Transcripts were subsequently analyzed using the framework approach. Key findings included the following: To be implemented in practice, a frailty measure must be brief, relevant, and inform care decisions. The interviews revealed actions that should be taken prior to knowledge translation. These actions include ensuring that the frailty measures are valid and have a clear purpose, and collaborating with appropriate knowledge users. Linkages between frailty researchers and practitioners and policymakers are key to successful implementation of measures developed. Lessons from this study may be used to implement frailty measures in a Canadian population of older adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
HELP with Behaviours that Challenge
Elspeth Bradley and Marika Korossy
When individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities engage in behaviours that challenge, their potential for full community participation, integration and quality of life is greatly compromised. Embedded in the acronym HELP (Health, Environment & Supports, Lived Experience, Psychiatric Disorder), this article describes a biopsychosocial multi-perspective understanding of these behaviours. HELP is an approach that can be embraced comfortably by all stakeholders (including individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and their families), empowers problem solving and has implications for effective
Design of the Built Environment and the Integration of Wheelchair Users in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Commentary and Exploratory Study
Mohammad A. Mulazadeh and Talal S. Al-Harbi
Many people in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are living with disability and severe accessibility limitations, especially those with physical disability who constitute nearly 33.7% of the Kingdom’s total disabled population. Disability policy in KSA has a history of half a century, beginning with the Royal Decree No. 1219 in 1956 and ending with the Disability Code in 2000. However, Legislation of Disability in 1987 and the Disability Code of 2000 were more dedicated to challenge the inaccessibility problem and provide disabled people with equal rights to their peers. The aim of this article is to address the question of: how far the disability policy of KSA has contributed to the creation of accessible built environments in which wheelchair users can experience their lives independently. To answer the question, a random sample of 13 public buildings from a list of 130 buildings in the yellow pages, and six different roads from the Central Business District of Riyadh city, were selected for field observation. The mandate of KSA’s laws and the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines were used as a yard stick to measure the accessibility compliance standards of the chosen sample. Quantitative analysis of the field observation data revealed that the accessibility compliance of the sample in Riyadh was extremely limited in the sense that only three buildings had an overall compliance of more than 50% while none of the roads had reached 50% overall accessibility compliance. The results of the observations revealed that the disability law has failed in guaranteeing the equal rights of accessibility by wheelchair users in society. As such, it is safe to conclude that even mandate of the law associated with political will tends to be ineffective and cannot be taken for granted for solving the environmental accessibility problem in KSA.