Gender Differences in Aggressive Behaviours Among Individuals with Intellectual Disability: The Moderating Role of Vulnerability Factors
Melissa Clark, Diane Morin and Anne Crocker
The factors contributing to aggressive behaviours among individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are not fully understood. The goal of the present study was to examine whether vulnerability factors such as ID severity, speech, or motor impairments moderated gender differences in aggressive behaviours. Adults (n=296) with ID were recruited, and data on vulnerability factors and aggressive behaviours were collected through file reviews and interviews. Moderation analyses indicated that men were more likely to exhibit physical aggression than women, particularly those with a mild level of ID. Analyses also indicated that women were more likely to exhibit physical aggression than men, particularly those with speech impairment. Our findings suggest that gender-dependent vulnerability factors might contribute to aggressive behaviours among individuals with ID.
Children with Intellectual Disability and Their Experience with Fecal Incontinence: Beyond a Pathophysiology Approach
Anna Don and Patrick O'Byrne
Compared to children without intellectual disability (ID), children with ID are significantly more likely to experience fecal incontinence. Within the dearth of extant research about fecal incontinence, children with ID are often excluded from studies. Researchers of studies including children with ID often understand fecal incontinence as either a “normal” and involuntary diagnostic phenotype for children with ID or as a deliberate oppositional behaviour. In either case, the child is positioned as the focus of the problem. In this article we discuss how children with ID experience fecal incontinence within a context of disabling service barriers resulting from the children’s individualized method of communication and self-care support needs that further their social stigmatization. This concept emerged from a Foucauldian discourse analysis that we conducted with eight carers of children with ID in Ontario. The results that we have presented in this article only discuss the interrelated concepts of “fecal incontinence,” “needs, and “untouchable as a social consequence” that emerged from theme 1 of the full study. Future research is needed to explore the experience of children with ID and fecal incontinence from a holistic perspective and to inform professionals working with this population about the importance of providing person-centred interventions.
The Processing of Emotions in Faces and Music by Adolescents on the Autism Spectrum with Lower and Higher Verbal Cognitive Ability: A Pilot Study
Hadas Dahary, Shalini Sivathasan and Eve-Marie Quintin
Verbal cognitive ability is known to correlate with emotion processing in faces and music in typically developing individuals. However, the relation between these variables among autistic people is not clear and has been investigated mainly in those who have proficient verbal cognitive ability. For this reason, we compared the recognition and perceived intensity of emotions in faces and music of 25 adolescents (12–16 years old) on the autism spectrum with lower (n = 12) or higher (n = 13) verbal cognitive ability. Participants were assessed with the verbal index of a cognitive test (WISC-V), an online hearing test, and two computer tasks that assessed emotion recognition using 4-second face and music stimuli. Participants were asked: (1) to identify the emotion conveyed in facial expressions and musical excerpts; and (2) to rate the intensity of that emotion. Participants were very accurate at identifying emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) in faces and music, irrespective of verbal cognitive ability. In fact, accuracy scores were near ceiling, which precluded a statistical comparison of emotion identification in faces and music. We discuss factors that likely influenced these results such as the level of task difficulty and the participants’ ages. In terms of intensity ratings in faces, sadness was perceived as less intense than happiness and fear. In music, intensity ratings of happiness, sadness and fear were similar within and between the groups with low or high verbal cognitive ability. Verbal cognitive ability was negatively associated with perceived emotional intensity in faces but not in music, which may indicate that language ability modulates the experience of facial emotional processing. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that adolescents across the autism spectrum might benefit from music education as a strength-based approach for teaching emotion processing skills.